Mountains: How are they formed?

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Article by: Fraser Cain When beholding the sheer size and majesty of mountains, ancient humans could not help but feel that they were standing in the presence of something… godlike. And within the belief systems of many ancient cultures, it was generally felt that mountains were something spiritual – either serving as the home of the Gods, a result of their activity, or a place to get closer to God. Thanks to modern geology, we now know the true story of how mountains are formed. Simply put, they are the result of tectonic forces or volcanism. But knowing this has not diminished their impressive and awe-inspiring nature. When a geological formation is created through forces that can only be described as titanic, this is to be expected. But just how are mountains formed? In truth, there are three ways in which mountains are formed, which correspond to the types of mountains in question. These are known as volcanic, fold and block mountains. All of these are the result of plate tectonics, where compressional forces, isostatic uplift and intrusion of igneous matter forces surface rock upward, creating a landform higher than the surrounding features. Over the course of many million years, these uplifted sections are eroded by the elements – wind, rain, ice and gravity. These gradually wear the surface of the mountains down, cause the surface to be younger than the rocks that form them, and lead to the types of formations and distributions we are familiar with today. The East side of the Matterhorn, a fold mountain that measures 4,478 meters in height, mirrored in lake Riffelsee. Credit: Wikipedia Commons/Dirk Beyer Volcanic Mountains: Volcanic mountains are formed when a tectonic plate is pushed beneath another (or above a mid-ocean ridge or hotspot) where magma is forced to the surface. When the magma reaches the surface, it often builds a volcanic mountain, such as s shield volcano or a stratovolcano. Examples of this sort of mountains include Mount Fuji in Japan, Mauna Kea in Hawaii, Nyamuragira in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Skjaldbreiður in Iceland  and Mount Etna in Sicily. At other times, the rising magma solidifies below the surface and forms dome mountains, where material is pushed up from the force of the build-up beneath it. Examples of this formation include Navajo Mountain in San Juan County, Utah; the Chaitén lava dome of Chile, Torfajökull in Iceland, and Mount St. Helens in Washington State. Fold Mountains: As the name suggests, fold mountains occur when two tectonic plates collide at a convergent plate boundary, causing the crust to overthicken. This process forces the less dense crust to float on top of the denser mantle rocks – with material being forced upwards to form hills, plateaus or mountains – while a greater volume of material is forced downward into the mantle. Satellite image of the Himalayan mountain chain, as imaged by NASA’s Landsat-7 satellite. Credit: NASA The Jura Mountains, a series of sub-parallel mountain ridges located in the Alps, are an example of fold mountains. Other examples include the “Simply Folded Belt” of the Zagros mountains, which extends from northern Syria and southern Turkey to eastern Iran and the Persian Gulf. There is also the Akwapim-Togo ranges in Ghana and the Ridge-and-Valley Appalachians in the Eastern United States. But perhaps most famous...

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6 Great Movies About Hiking

Posted by on 4:50 am in Blog | 0 comments

Nothing gets you pumped up for a hiking trip like watching a movie devoted to the topic. Whether you’re looking for a little inspiration or are hoping to recreate a particular scene from your favorite flick, watching a few of these films prior to your departure can be just what you need to take your trip from average to extraordinary. Next time you find yourself wanting to get your fix, look no further than this list of some of the best hiking movies out there. 127 Hours (2010)Chances are pretty good that you’ve heard about (if not already seen) this movie but we’d be remiss to leave it off the list. 127 Hours stars James Franco as Aron Ralston, a hiker who’s foray into some of Utah’s most beautiful terrain quickly turns tragic. This film was nominated for a slew of awards and as hard as it can be to watch at moments, it’s a cautionary tale that shouldn’t be missed. Southbounders (2005)Set on the Appalachian Trail, Southbounders is the story of a woman, Olivia, who takes it upon herself to hike the trail in it’s entirety, from Maine to Georgia. Over her 2,000 mile journey, makes friends, experiences the unparalleled beauty that surrounds her, and is forced to come to terms with some of her shortcomings, all over the span of a single summer. The Way Back (2010)The story of Russian gulag escapees who brave thousands of miles across inhospitable landscape (think Siberia, the Himalayas, and the Gobi Desert) in a search for freedom. A harrowing tale, for sure, but inspiring all the same. It will definitely have you think before complaining next time you embark on an especially arduous hike. The Mountain (1956)Starring Spencer Tracy and Robert Wagner, The Mountain is a classic that tells the story of a particularly greedy man who intends to rob the bodies of an airplane crash’s victims atop the French Alps. Knowing that he cannot do it alone, he convinces his reluctant brother to join him on what ends up being a journey that neither man could have anticipated. Into The Wild (2007)This adaptation of Jon Krakauer’s book, Into The Wild is Sean Penn’s directorial effort to tell the story of Christopher McCandless, an ill-fated young man who eschews the creature comforts of his privileged life to embark on a journey of self-discovery with, according to many, little regard for the reality of life in the wilderness. Whether you find yourself rallying for McCandless or furious at his seemingly incomprehensible decisions, this is a great flick for outdoor enthusiasts and will more than likely spark lively debate post-screening. Touching The Void (2003)A book turned award-winning documentary, Touching The Void is the story of Joe Simpson and Simon Yates’ 1985 climb of the Siula Grande, a 20,813 foot hike through some of nature’s most inhospitable conditions while facing some unimaginably trying situations. Expect to spend the bulk of this movie holding your breath as you take in the unparalleled determination, bravery, and heroism that takes place in the middle of what can only be described as a glacial hell on earth.  ...

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Choosing a Backpack

Posted by on 4:47 pm in Blog | 0 comments

A Guide by Lexi Quinton The first thing you need to think about is what kind of trip you are doing. There are two main options: Backpacking Expedition To make this simple let me define the terms above. Backpacking is what 99% of people who read this will be doing. Backpacking in this context means that you are taking a trip where you intend to travel to more than one destination in a given time frame. This could be within one country, or multiple countries. The type of accommodation is likely to be hostels or cheap hotels and transportation is likely to be buses, trains, tuk tuks, overland trucks, taxis and other local transport. An expedition will be something like Raleigh International offers people; multiple days trekking from a-b-c carrying their own gear all the way. This might be through a jungle, in the mountains or in another remote environment. You are likely to be sleeping in tents or hammocks, cooking on stoves or campfires and probably washing in streams or rivers. This is not your Inca Trail, overland bus, Kilimanjaro or Base Camp Everest trek or any trek which has porters/pack horses. The reason why it is important to differentiate is because there are two types of rucksack available to travellers in outdoors shops for different types of travel There are a rucksack called a travelpack, and a rucksack called a toploader. A toploader is designed for an expedition; a travelpack is designed for backpacking. What is the difference between the two? A travelpack is a short, fat looking rucksack which is often displayed in store or online with a small daypack attached to it. This is the type of rucksack you will probably end up buying. These rucksacks are especially designed for backpacking because the features are included with the lifestyle in mind. The main factor is the fact that travelpacks open like suitcases which means that they are very easy to pack and unpack (or throw clothes etc into when you’re in a hurry for a bus/train etc).  Because they open like suitcases they are easy to lock because they have two zippers which can be locked together, keeping your bits and pieces secure when they’re on a bus/airline/transportation or stowed in your hostel. The travelpack have a really helpful flap which can be zipped over the straps when they aren’t in use, for example to keep them secure when checking your luggage in on airlines. If this flap wasn’t there is a risk that the straps will get caught up on the various mechanisms the luggage has to pass and the way to and from the plane. Travelpacks come with a free daypack! Handy for day trips, short treks and hand luggage. I’ll go into more detail about this later. A toploader is a long, slim rucksack which has a hood type opening at the top, and underneath the hood is a drawstring closure opening which gives you access to the main pack from the top down. There is usually only access from this top section although there are more toploaders coming onto the market today with zip sections for entry to the bottom, and even some which have access to the central panel of the rucksack. The toploader’s shoulder straps cannot be packed away....

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Surviving in the Forest

Posted by on 7:52 pm in Blog | 0 comments

The forest is a beautiful environment, which is why so many people go camping each year. However, it’s best to be prepared and know the fundamental survival skills of the forest before you go camping. That way, in the event that you get lost, you will know exactly what to do. Disclaimer: The survival tips on this website are for informational purposes only. The authors take no responsibility for the reader’s individual actions or usage of the information presented on this page.   1. STOP and Think Use the Boy Scouts mnemonic device of “STOP”, which stands for “Stop, Think, Observe, and Plan”. You’ve just discovered that you are lost in the forest. You’re unsure about whether or not rescue will be arriving. Here is a list of what you should be doing: 1. Retrace your steps. 2. Find a source of drinking water. 3. Create a fire. 4. Find or build a shelter before nightfall. 5. Fashion a weapon you can use for self defense. 6. Find a source of food. 7. Travel in one direction during daylight. 2. Retrace Your Steps The first thing to do is see if it’s possible to backtrack and retrace your steps to the last known path. For the rest of these instructions, we’ll assume that you were unable to backtrack and that you are officially lost. 3. Finding Water: One of your first priorities should be to stay hydrated. The human body can only survive 3 or 4 days without water, so start looking right away for a source of water. Common Sources of Water: Streams/Rivers: Any stream or river with running water will be a good source, but keep in mind that just because it looks clean doesn’t’t mean that it is. You will need to boil the water to kill any bacteria before drinking it. If you have a tin/aluminum can, this will be an effective container to boil water over a fire. Lakes: If you come across a lake, this is a great resource for water. You should boil this water also in order to avoid becoming sick from bacteria. Rain Water: If it rains, be sure to set out any containers you have to catch falling water. Any large leaves can provide an effective surface for catching rain and funneling it into a container. Solar Water Still If there’s no rainfall or fresh water available and you have a sheet of plastic available, then you can make a solar water still. Create a Solar Water Still: Step 1: Dig a hole in the soil. Step 2: Place a container in the center of the hole. Step 3: Fill the gaps surrounding the container with anything wet, such as leaves. Step 4: Place a plastic sheet over the hole and anchor the sheet in place with larger rocks around the edges of the hole. Step 5: Place one small rock in the center of the plastic, just over the container. Step 6: Condensation will occur on the underside of the plastic and run down to the center. It will drip into the container filling it with distilled drinking water. 4. Build a Fire/Stay Warm Throughout the entire survival steps, you are always going to want to stay dry. Keep yourself warm with layers of clothing. You’ll also want...

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3 Homemade Mosquito Repellents

Posted by on 8:17 am in Blog | 0 comments

All Natural Mosquito Spray Repellents Recipe #1 What you’ll need: 4 oz spray bottle 2 oz of witch hazel 2oz of distilled water Essential Oil (20-25 drops for ages 3 and up) (40-50 drops for ages 10 and up) Add all ingredients to the spray bottle; shake well and apply as needed. Shake well before each application. Avoid spraying on your face. If you get any of this repellent on your hands avoid touching your eyes and mouth. Ages under 2, spray on their clothes ONLY. Essential oil combinations safe for ages 3 and up: 10 drops of lavender + 10 drops of citronella 8 drops lavender + 5 drops geranium + 7 drops cedarwood 10 drops lemon eucalyptus + 10 drops lavender 5 drops lavender + 5 drops geranium + 2 drops patchouli + 8 drops spearmint 5 drops geranium + 5 drops citronella + 2 drops patchouli + 3 drops lemon eucalyptus + 3 drops lavender + 3 drops spearmint 10 drops citronella + 5 drops lemon eucalyptus + 3 drops patchouli + 3 drops lavender Essential oil combinations safe for ages 10 and up: 10 drops geranium + 15 drops lavender + 5 drops patchouli + 10 drops lemongrass + 10 drops citronella 15 drops lemongrass + 15 drops eucalyptus + 20 drops citronella 20 drops lavender + 20 drops lemongrass + 10 drops peppermint 20 drops rosemary +  20 drops cedarwood + 10 drops peppermint 15 drops lavender + 10 drops basil + 10 drops rosemary + 15 drops spearmint 15 drops eucalyptus + 20 drops lavender + 15 drops lemongrass **This spray also repels flies, gnats, and ticks.   Recipe #2 What you’ll need: 16 oz spray bottle ½ teaspoon of vegetable glycerine 14 oz of witch hazel 40 drops of either lavender, lemongrass, citronella, OR tea tree oil Mix all ingredients in the 16 oz bottle and shake well and apply as needed. Shake well before each application.   Recipe #3 What you’ll need: Plastic spray bottle 8 oz of distilled water A pinch of epsom salt 10-12 drops of peppermint oil 10-12 drops of purification oil Add all the ingredients to spray bottle and shake well. Spray your skin and clothes generously, avoiding your face.  ...

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Get Back II Survival Kit With Survival Instructions Over 50 Rescue Items Included Fire Starter Kit

Posted by on 10:58 pm in Products | 0 comments

Get Back II Survival Kit With Survival Instructions Over 50 Rescue Items Included Fire Starter Kit

Over 50 Survival Tools Needed In An Emergency Survival Kit Included in the Emergency Kit is Survival Instructions to Help You Survive Any Emergency Compact Water tight Crush-proof Enclosure Small Enough To Fit In Your Camping Gear, Car, Back Pack, RV Temporary Shelter, Water purification Pills and Fire Starting equipment to help you survive Works or Your Money Back Don’t Be Like Millions of people who leave their home everyday without being prepared. Buy Your Own Survival Kit HERE Be prepared for an emergency with the Aspen Ridge Sports Get Back II Are you prepared to survive in an Emergency Situation? With Our “Get Back II” survival kit in a can, you will have the basic tools to survival about anything. Get Back II Survival Kit includes over 50 items in a Sturdy, watertight, crush-proof Aluminum Box that measures 5 1/4″ x 3 3/4″ x 1 1/4″  to Main items Include; *  Large Orange Whistle *  Survival Instructions on Waterproof Paper with Casualty Assessment checklist. *  Small Candle *  Multi Tool includes a pliers, screwdrivers and file *  Fire starter with a three inch ferro rod combined, 4 cottons balls included *  24 inch Emergency wire saw used to cut firewood or build a shelter. *  10 ft of nylon fishing line, fishing hooks, fishing leaders and fishing weights. *  Single Edge razor blade for first aid. *  Pencil to write instructions for rescuers. *  Waterproof paper *  LED light *  6 Water Purification Pills *  7′ of Nylon Cord *  7″ of repair wire *  Sewing Kit with 3 different threads, 2 buttons and one needle *  Compass *  Signal mirror *  2 large salt packets for the danger of electrolyte imbalance in a hot environment All these essential tools are in the Get Back II Survival Kit by Aspen Ridge Sports. Great addition for your car, your backpack, RV or just to have around the house. Get You Survival Kit...

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10 Signs You’ve Gone From Camping To ‘Glamping’

Posted by on 9:53 pm in Blog | 0 comments

Are you a camper or a glamper? We’ve got a list to make sure you know which “camp” you’re in. Summer is just around the corner, and that means it’s time to gear up and get out, the great outdoors 1) The Rig Camping Campers get around in a whip that’s as dirty as their boots and covered with battle scars from adventures past. Scratches? Nah, they’re badges of honor. await! Mind what you pack; one man’s roughing it is another man’s     Glamping A glamp-mobile on the other hand, is really more about getting a good view while putting a significant barrier between you and whatever lay beyond the windshield be it earth, wind…or water!   2) Morning Coffee Camping The first sip of joe for the camper is earned after making it via one of the many old fashioned ways. Glamping With a variety of handheld and travel espresso machines rugged campers can take with them, glampers require a more sophisticated approach. 3) Watercraft Camping Next to a tent, a camper’s best friend is a trusty old canoe – tried and tested through the ages. Glamping Do you now measure your boat in tonnes? Then you just might be a glamper. If you found a mint on the boat of your yacht, you’ve definitely turned that corner. Lucky you. 4) Cooking Fire Camping Campers rely on the same kindling, wood, and hot coals to make their meals that prehistoric man did. Glamping A real glamping meal takes more than just fire, it takes money, time, money, care, and money. But shoot, that Kobe beef isn’t going to massage itself! 5) Night Light Camping The true hallmark of any camper’s evening is enjoying the twilight with the only illumination nature provides. Usually that comes with howling wolves, bats, and creatures lurking in the dark that add to the experience. How else will you get that hair to stand on end? Glamping Tiki torches, bluetooth “proximity lanterns,” and iTunes-synced LED party lanterns, nighttime at the glampsite is a little different: Author’s depiction of a typical evening at the glampsite 6) Music Camping Essentially built for quiet night’s by the fire, the guitar is the only sound a camper needs to break the stillness of a chilly night. Glamping Most glampers rely on more than just a long-bearded hippie with a guitar; fortunately there are bomb-proof bluetooth speakers, solar-powered boom boxes, and outdoor surround-sound speakers to chase away the nasty sounds of nature. The soothing sounds of a glamper’s sound system 7) Bathing Camping If campers don’t receive enough rain for a satisfactory shower, there’s always the lakes, rivers, and swamps! Glamping Glampers also appreciate a dip in the wild waterways of the outdoors – of course, they make sure to properly bathe after any unsanitary exposure to wet. 8) Bedding Camper What the earth alone does not provide, a camper will make right with a simple sleeping pad or bedroll. Glamping Like their rugged brethren, glampers, too, enjoy the cool, firm embrace of the bare ground… between a down mattress, box spring, oak frame, and four legs. 9) Bathroom Camping True campers know the proper ways to answer nature’s call – bury it, keep it away from water, even pack it out if needs be – beyond that, no special...

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First Aid! What to do if you get stung

Posted by on 6:28 am in Blog | 0 comments

  With summer just around the corner, we’ll soon be heading out into the sunshine, enjoying our gardens, local parks and beaches. But with the welcome rays comes the inevitable array of insects and if you’re unlucky enough to be stung by one of them, knowing how to treat it quickly could save you from potential complications. Here are some tips on what to do if you get stung. Usually a sting from a bee, wasp or hornet will give a sharp pain, be itchy and leave some redness swelling around the puncture. Depending on where you’ve been stung, this is usually not serious and is more painful than dangerous. But sometimes they can cause the body to have a severe allergic reaction (anaphylactic shock), so it’s important to look out for this and get medical help quickly if necessary. Take the following simple steps to help: Reassure and calm down the person who has been stung If the sting is visible, brush or scrape it off. You could use the blunt edge of a knife or a credit card. DO NOT use tweezers as you risk squeezing more poison into the wound Apply an ice pack (a bag of frozen peas wrapped in a cloth will do) or cold compress for at least 10 minutes, and if possible raise the affected area of the body If swelling and pain persist seek medical advice from your doctor Beware of stings to the mouth and throat Stings to the mouth and throat can be dangerous as the tissue can swell causing the airway to become blocked · Suck on an ice cube, or sip cold water to help prevent any swelling. Give children ice cream or an ice lolly rather than an ice cube · Keep checking breathing, pulse and level of response If any swelling starts to develop and breathing becomes difficult call for medical help immediately   NOTE: These tips are useful in removing the bee’s sting. Always remember that it is important to seek professional help after following the tips above. Just because you’ve removed the sting doesn’t mean the toxins are out as well.   Link:  ...

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Camping may change but it will never get old

Posted by on 12:04 am in Blog | 0 comments

    “Rainy days and Mondays always get me down” are part of the lyrics to an old familiar song. I’d guess there are times this spring when a person could get a little discouraged when it comes to the weather. We have had some days that were almost picture perfect and life was good, but this type of day only seemed to last for a short while. It seems that whenever the temperature is just right and the sun is shining, the wind is blowing almost off the chart. Such is the weather in this lovely state of ours, and I personally would not trade it for anywhere else. This very same weather thing was one of the reasons that I eventually gave up camping on Memorial Day. There was a time when my boys were young that camping with the same group of friends was a tradition on Memorial Day weekend. We enjoyed some good times, but eventually it began to seem more like a survival test. When our family first started camping, we had a pickup with a topper and a tent. I had purchased all the necessary gear for tenting like a Coleman lantern and stove, which I actually enjoyed cooking on. Camping was not without a lot of positives like the smell of bacon frying in the pan, roasting hot dogs and making s’mores, which the kids (of all ages) loved to do. Camping wasn’t camping without a campfire, and when we hit a streak of rainy Memorial Day weekends as the kids grew older they became less excited about the thought of spending a weekend in a waterlogged tent. The last Memorial Day we spent tenting was a disaster because it rained the whole time, and my youngest, Brad, came down with pink eye and shared it with the rest of the kids. In the years following, we were periodically reminded of that. Shortly after that trip we purchased a pickup camper, and life was much better because even if it rained we had a dry place to sleep and hang out. As the kids grew older, the camper seemed to get smaller and smaller and eventually seemed cramped. To this day, I still look back at the vacations and camping trips that we spent in that pickup camper, and I get a warm cozy feeling. Those times were actually very good times that we spent as a family — just simple times but fun times. We did spend a lot of time up north fishing and camping, mostly at Spider Lake, and those were times that made memories that will last a lifetime. Yes, camping can be a little work, but it is still a great way to spend quality time as a family. A guy can purchase a tent, a few camping accessories, put on a pair of jeans and a flannel shirt, grab a hatchet and be “that guy” for a week or maybe just a weekend. At the end of the day, there is nothing better than sitting around a campfire letting your mind get lost in the magic of the dancing flames. Yes, that is when you can tell yourself that life, at least for the time being, is pretty darned good. I have to admit that even...

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Home Remedies for Mosquito Bites

Posted by on 7:21 am in Blog | 0 comments

Mosquitoes survive by feeding on human and animal blood. They use their thin, sharp and elongated mouthpart to puncture the skin of the host and suck up the blood. Because the puncture is so small, we often don’t feel the bite when it happens. But the after effects can be very annoying and potentially harmful. Some of the symptoms of mosquito bites are itchiness, swelling, skin rashes, bruising and occasionally skin infection. Mosquito bites can also lead to fatal diseases like malaria and dengue in some parts of the world. Ideally, you want to avoid being bitten by wearing long sleeves and long pants or other protective measures. But if you are bitten, there are many natural remedies that can provide symptom relief and help treat the affected area.   1. Lemon Lemons contain natural anti-inflammatory and anesthetic properties that make them very useful in treating mosquito bites. Simply cut a lemon into two pieces and rub the inside of one of the halves against your itchy skin for quick relief. You can try rubbing the yellow rind of the lemon over your skin too. Apply lemon juice to the bites to help reduce the chance of developing an infection. Another option is to add crushed basil leaves to lemon juice and apply the mixture onto the affected area. 2. Minced Onion or Garlic Onion and garlic help reduce swelling and soothe the itching caused by mosquito bites. Moreover, their strong smell repels insects and mosquitoes. Apply minced onion or garlic directly onto the affected area. Leave it on for a few minutes, then wash it off. 3. Baking Soda Baking soda can effectively stop the itchiness caused by mosquito bites. Being alkaline in nature, it neutralizes the pH of the skin and hence provides relief. Dissolve one teaspoon of baking soda in a glass of water. Dip a clean cloth into the mixture and put the cloth over the affected skin area for 10 to 20 minutes. Another option is to make a paste using witch hazel and baking soda. Apply it onto the bite and leave it on for about 10 minutes. Then wash the area with lukewarm water. 4. Aloe Vera Aloe vera is a natural antiseptic agent, which makes it a great remedy for mosquito bites. It will reduce pain, swelling and itching, as well as aid in faster healing. Cut the meaty portion of an aloe vera leaf to extract the gel. If you do not have an aloe vera plant, you can use aloe vera gel readily available in most stores. Chill the aloe vera gel in the refrigerator for 10 to 15 minutes. Rub it directly onto the affected site. 5. Salt Salt is another easy remedy for mosquito bites due to its antiseptic and anti-inflammatory properties. Create a paste using a few drops of water and a small amount of table salt. Apply the paste onto the area. Another option is to make a paste using garlic salt, seasoning salt and water in equal amounts. Apply this paste onto the affected area. It may cause a burning sensation for a few seconds, but great relief will follow. If you live near a beach, go swimming to bathe your skin in the natural salt present in the water. 6. Ice Cold temperature limits the distribution of inflammatory substances to the bite site...

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